Refining Child Pornography: Law Crime, Language, and Social Consequences
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Kerley et al. Hillary B. This finding makes the new legislation being proposed on unmanned aircraft essential. James Forman, Yale Law School , is visiting at Stanford this year, teaching one seminar on race and the criminal justice system and another on race, class, and public education. He recently shifted from a clinical to a non-clinical position at Yale. He will be doing lots of traveling to talk about the book, so if any section members want him to come speak to their class, send him a note at jamesformanjr gmail.
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Professor Gallant is also a member of the Executive Committee of the International Criminal Bar, an independent organization of lawyers and Bars from around the world which has advocated for projects like the ICCBA to support and improve representation of accused persons and victims at the ICC. This panel hears appeals from decisions on matters of discipline for violation of the ICC Code of Conduct for Counsel—i.
Carissa will finish her service as Secretary for the AALS Criminal Justice Section in January, and she is delighted that someone else will be responsible for drafting the next newsletter! Joan H. The Risks and Rewards of Redefining Innocence. Cortney Lollar, University of Kentucky College of Law , is pleased to report that her article, Criminalizing Pregnancy , available here , was accepted for publication at the Indiana Law Journal forthcoming Eric J.
Miller was appointed Leo J. He is currently spending the academic year visiting at Washington University in St. Louis School of Law Fall Spring Louis School of Law in November She is working on a new article about domestic violence, guns, and gun control, which she will present at the Law and Society Association Annual Meeting in Mexico City in June She continues to serve as Reporter for the Tenth Circuit Criminal Pattern Jury Instructions Committee and is researching the legal history of public responses to intimate-partner violence for a book project.
Geary S. Reamey, St. Susan D. The heterogeneity of traits, experiences and criminal history of sexual offenders requires more advanced methods of categorizing offense behaviors Martinez-Catena et al. The most promising are the developmental pathways of sexual offending model, the self-regulation model and the specialist vs.
Refining Child Pornography Law
These models take into account problematic behaviors, distorted thought processes and offense histories. This section reviews models that may ultimately replace traditional typologies to inform treatment and management of sexual offenders. Due to advanced statistical methods that evaluate the unique and combined contributions of risk factors, more comprehensive descriptions of the psychological processes, developmental histories and offense patterns have been devised to explain sexual deviance. Researchers explain that genetic factors may predispose an individual to pursue a specific human need e.
Negative developmental experiences figure prominently in many models of sexual offending behavior. Yet, not all sexual offenders report being sexually victimized during childhood. Research findings indicate that there may not be only one type of abuse that serves as a developmental risk factor for later sexual offending. Instead, multiple types of abusive experiences, or a pathological family environment, may precede offending behaviors Dube et al. Researchers have also suggested that different types of maltreatment may be associated with different types of sexual offending behaviors e.
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This section reviews the current research findings that compare the developmental risk factors of various offender characteristics. Researchers have found that child sexual abusers exhibited heightened sexuality in childhood. Within the adult sex offender population, Simons, Wurtele and Durham found that child sexual abusers, as compared to rapists, reported more experiences of child sexual abuse, early exposure to pornography, sexual activities with animals and an earlier onset of masturbation.
Rapists, when compared to child sexual abusers, reported more frequent experiences of physical abuse, parental violence and emotional abuse. In contrast, the childhood histories of rapists appear more indicative of violence.
Simons, Wurtele and Durham found that rapists, when compared to child sexual abusers, reported more frequent experiences of physical abuse, parental violence, emotional abuse and cruelty to animals. Researchers contend that physical abuse, parental violence and emotional abuse result in externalizing behaviors only when they are considered in combination Lee et al. As an illustration, Beauregard, Lussier and Proulx found that physical and verbal abuse during childhood led to antisocial behavior and callous personality traits, both of which led to aggressive sexual fantasies.
Likewise, Salter and colleagues indicate that the combination of physical violence, domestic violence, emotional abuse and neglect predicted subsequent sexual offending. In a prospective study of childhood abuse histories, Widom and Massey reported individuals who experienced physical abuse and neglect but not sexual abuse were at significantly increased risk for arrest for sexual offenses in comparison to those who did not experience abuse.
Researchers e. These individuals often react to confusing situations with overt aggression. In studies that examined the developmental risk factors of crossover offenders or indiscriminate offenders e. Indiscriminate offenders, also known as mixed offenders, report sexually abusing both adults and children equivalently. With respect to heightened sexuality, Simons, Tyler and Heil found that indiscriminate offenders were less likely than child sexual abusers to be sexually abused, but they were more likely to report early sexual experiences with peers before age 10 , to have witnessed sexual abuse as a child, and to have had more frequent exposure to pornography before age Similar to child sexual abusers i.
A great majority of indiscriminate offenders 81 percent disclosed engaging in bestiality during childhood in comparison to fewer child sexual abusers 59 percent and rapists 30 percent. With respect to childhood violence, both indiscriminate offenders and rapists described childhood experiences consistent with physical and emotional abuse. However, indiscriminate offenders were exposed to domestic violence significantly more frequently than rapists. Results indicated that parental violence and bestiality were strong predictors of crossover offending.
Of a subsample of 42 female sexual offenders, Simons and colleagues reported that the majority 81 percent had been sexually abused by multiple perpetrators at a young age with high frequency. Female offenders masturbated later than male offenders i. Likewise, many female offenders were exposed to pornography before age 10, but early exposure is significantly more prevalent among male sexual offenders.
Similar to male offenders, females report engaging in bestiality during adolescence, but the prevalence rates for females are significantly lower than for child sexual abusers and indiscriminate offenders of both genders. Similar to indiscriminate offenders, Simons and colleagues also found that the majority of female sexual offenders reported physical abuse, emotional abuse and witnessing of domestic violence.
Although the frequency of physical abuse among female sexual offenders was less than for males, females were more likely to be abused by both male and female perpetrators. Yet, female sexual offenders were more likely than male offenders to report witnessing violence perpetrated by a female; male rapists and indiscriminate offenders more often witnessed violence by a male perpetrator. Similar findings were reported among 47 female sexual offenders assessed on a childhood experiences measure by Levenson, Willis and Prescott Compared to the general population, female sexual offenders had more than three times the odds of being sexually abused; four times the odds of experiencing verbal abuse; and more than three times the odds of neglect and having an incarcerated family member.
Female sexual offenders experienced multiple adverse childhood experiences consisting of sexual abuse, neglect, verbal abuse and substance abuse in the home, which was associated with having younger victims.
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These findings emphasize the importance of trauma-informed care with female sexual offenders. In addition to childhood abuse, the majority of sexual offenders 93 percent exhibited insecure attachment Marsa et al. Marshall contends that the failure of sex offenders to develop secure attachment bonds in childhood results in their failure to develop sufficient social skills and self-esteem necessary to achieve intimacy with adults.
Poor parental bonding enhances the effects of child maltreatment and may contribute to sexual offending by creating vulnerability, a lack of empathy and intimacy deficits. Recently, attachment style has been associated with different types of offending. Maniglio summarized the influence of attachment on sexual offending behavior. A sexual offender's insecure attachment style during childhood affects the development of social skills and self-confidence, which in turn, prevents initiation or maintenance of intimate relationships during adulthood.
Instead, sexual offenders may use deviant sexual fantasies as a means to achieve intimacy, power and control, absent of reality. Maniglio explains deviant fantasy as a means to achieve intimacy or autonomy creates a disposition to sexually offend. Likewise, in their recent meta-analysis comparing intrafamilial to extrafamilial offenders, Seto et al. This finding confirms family dysfunction as an important etiological factor in sexual offending. Taken together, these findings support Marshall and Barbaree's integrated theory of sexual offending, which postulates that individuals who experienced child maltreatment are likely to exhibit distorted internal working models of relationships, which result in poor social skills and emotional self-regulation.
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The lack of social skills, especially during adolescence, is likely to result in rejection by others, which in turn will decrease self-esteem, increase anger and produce cognitive distortions about peers and relationships. Negative emotions combined with cognitive distortions may increase the intensity of sexual desire and deviant sexual fantasies e.
Masturbation to these fantasies may serve as a coping mechanism from stress, as a means to exert control, and ultimately, as a behavioral rehearsal to sexual offending. These developmental factors interact with disinhibiting factors e. The emotional and psychological reinforcement of the behavior may be approach oriented i. The actual sexual offense combined with cognitive distortions serves to maintain sexual offending behaviors.
Consistent with Marshall and Barbaree's integrated theory of sexual offending, bestiality and masturbation to abuse experiences contribute to the development of deviant sexual interest and frequent masturbation suggests problems with emotional self-regulation. Frequent masturbation coupled with frequent pornography use increases the likelihood of sexual compulsivity. Likewise, insecure attachments suggest intimacy deficits, empathy deficits, antisocial lifestyle and social difficulties. Violence in the home has been shown to be predictive of antisocial lifestyle, hostile attitudes toward women, emotional callousness and hostile masculinity Malamuth et al.
In addition to difficulties with self-regulation, a heightened sexual childhood may lead to the development of child sexual abuse-supportive beliefs e. As summarized by Craissati and Beech , developmental experiences sexual and violent experiences and insecure attachment predict dynamic risk that, when combined with static markers e. Ward and Hudson , developed a nine-stage model of the sex offense process, which takes into account the heterogeneity of sexual offending.
The self-regulation model SRM summarizes the offense process by examining situational precipitants e. SRM contends that individuals are goal-directed as sexual abusers and offend to achieve a desired state — either to satisfy or to avoid offending. This model proposes that four pathways lead to sexual offending.