JavaScript by Example (2nd Edition)

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Section 1: Get your students off to a great start Section 1 of this book presents a six-chapter course in JavaScript that gets your students off to a great start. This section works for programming beginners as well as students with some programming experience because the pace is adjustable. Beginners can move through the material slowly and do all the exercises. Students with some programming experience can move more quickly and do just the exercises that you assign. Either way, when they finish this section, your students will be able to develop real-world JavaScript applications of their own.

This will put your course far ahead of what you can accomplish with competing books. Section 2: Make sure they master the JavaScript essentials Section 2 presents the essential JavaScript skills that every web developer should have. The six chapters in this section not only expand upon what your students have learned in section 1, but they also present new skills, like how to use arrays, web storage, and JavaScript libraries For some courses, this may be as far as you need to go because sections 1 and 2 are a solid JavaScript course by themselves.

Section 3: Take your students to the expert level If you have the time and your students are ready for it, section 3 presents the advanced skills that will take them to the expert level. This includes skills like how to work with events, images, and timers as they build applications like image rollovers and slide shows This section finishes with an introduction to jQuery that shows your students how jQuery can be used for the DOM scripting in JavaScript applications so the code is easier to read, debug, and maintain.

To develop JavaScript applications, your students need: any text editor Google Chrome along with the default browser: Internet Explorer for Windows users and Safari for Mac OS users Although your students can use any text editor with this book, a text editor that includes syntax coloring and auto-formatting will help them develop applications more quickly and with fewer errors. How to code the basic control statements How to code conditional expressions How to code if statements How to code while and do-while loops How to code for loops Three illustrative applications The enhanced Miles Per Gallon application The Future Value application The enhanced Test Scores application How to work with arrays How to create and use arrays How to use for loops to work with arrays The Test Scores application with an array The user interface The JavaScript.

How to use objects to work with data How to use the window and document objects How to use Textbox and Number objects How to use Date and String objects How to use the DOM to change the text for an element How to use functions How to create and call a function expression How to create and call a function declaration When and how to use local and global variables When and how to use strict mode How to handle events How to attach an event handler to an event How to use an onload event handler to attach other event handlers Two illustrative applications The Miles Per Gallon application The Email List application.

How to code conditional expressions How to use the equality and identity operators How to use the relational operators How to use the logical operators How to code the selection structures How to code if statements How to code switch statements How to use the conditional operator How to use the AND and OR operators for selections The Invoice application The HTML The JavaScript How to code the iteration structures How to code while and do-while loops How to code for loops How to use the break and continue statements. Basic skills for working with functions How to create and call a function How values are passed to functions How lexical scope works How to create and use JavaScript libraries The Task Manager application The HTML and CSS The storage library The task list library The main JavaScript file Object-oriented skills for working with functions How to use the arguments property of a function How to use the this keyword and the call and apply methods How to use the bind method to set the this keyword.

Basic skills for working with objects How to create and use the native object types How to create your own objects with object literals How to extend, modify, or delete an object How to create your own object types with constructor functions What you need to know about JavaScript prototypes How prototypes work When and how to create custom prototypes How to use the create method of the Object object The Task Manager application The HTML and CSS The storage library The task library The task list library The main JavaScript file Advanced skills for working with objects How to inherit methods from another object with Object.

End-of-chapter activities in the book Term lists Chapter summaries Practice exercises Student download at our retail site HTML, CSS, and JavaScript source code for all the applications that are presented in the book Starting source code for the exercises in the book Solutions to the book exercises Appendix A in the book gives your students complete instructions for downloading and installing these items on a PC or Mac. Similarly to prototypes, the same parent environment can be shared by several child environments: for example, two global functions share the same global environment.

Note: you can get detailed information about lexical environment in this article.

JavaScript. The Core: 2nd Edition – aremouvvi.mltory - 众成翻译

Environment records differ by type. There are object environment records and declarative environment records. On top of the declarative record there are also function environment records, and module environment records. Each type of the record has specific only to it properties. An example of an object environment record can be the record of the global environment. Such record has also associated binding object , which may store some properties from the record, but not the others, and vice-versa.

The binding object can also be provided as this value. Notice, the binding object exists to cover legacy constructs such as var -declarations, and with -statements, which also provide their object as a binding object. These are historical reason when environments were represented as simple objects. We have already seen how environments are related via the parent link. Now we shall see how an environment can outlive the context which creates it.

This concept is fundamental to functional programming , which aspects are supported in JavaScript. The problem arises when a function has to deal with free variables. For the function foo the variable x is free. When the foo function is activated via the funArg parameter — where should it resolve the x binding? From the outer scope where the function was created , or from the caller scope , from where the function is called?

As we see, the caller, that is the bar function, also provides the binding for x — with the value The use-case described above is known as the downwards funarg problem , i. This is solved by an agreement of using static scope , that is the scope of the creation time.

JavaScript. The Core: 2nd Edition

The static scope sometimes is also called lexical scope , hence the lexical environments naming. Technically the static scope is implemented by capturing the environment where a function is created. Note: you can read about static and dynamic scopes in this article. In our example, the environment captured by the foo function, is the global environment :. We can see that an environment references a function, which in turn reference the environment back. Further this environment is used for identifier resolution.

Note: a function is called in a fresh activation environment which stores local variables , and arguments. The parent environment of the activation environment is set to the closured environment of the function, resulting to the lexical scope semantics. The second sub-type of the Funarg problem is known as the upwards funarg problem.

Eloquent JavaScript, 2nd Ed.

The only difference here is that a capturing environment outlives the context which creates it. But we captured it, so it cannot be deallocated , and is preserved — to support static scope semantics. Often there is an incomplete understanding of closures — usually developers think about closures only in terms of the upward funarg problem and practically it really makes more sense. However, as we can see, the technical mechanism for the downwards and upwards funarg problem is exactly the same — and is the mechanism of the static scope.

As we mentioned above, similarly to prototypes, the same parent environment can be shared across several closures. This allows accessing and mutating the shared data:. Since both closures, increment and decrement , are created within the scope containing the count variable, they share this parent scope. Some languages may capture by-value , making a copy of a captured variable, and do not allow changing it in the parent scopes. However in JS, to repeat, it is always the reference to the parent scope.


Note: implementations may optimize this step, and do not capture the whole environment. Capturing only used free-variables, they though still maintain invariant of mutable data in parent scopes. You can find a detailed discussion on closures and the Funarg problem in the appropriate chapter. So all identifiers are statically scoped. The this value is a special object which is dynamically and implicitly passed to the code of a context. We can consider it as an implicit extra parameter , which we can access, but cannot mutate.

The major use-case is the class-based OOP. An instance method which is defined on the prototype exists in one exemplar , but is shared across all the instances of this class.

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When the getX method is activated, a new environment is created to store local variables and parameters. In addition, function environment record gets the [[ThisValue]] passed, which is bound dynamically depending how a function is called. Another application of this , is generic interface functions , which can be used in mixins or traits. As an alternative, a mixin can also be applied at prototype level instead of per-instance as we did in the example above.

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  4. Just to show the dynamic nature of this value, consider this example, which we leave to a reader as an exercise to solve:. Since only by looking at the source code of the foo function we cannot tell what value of this will it have in a particular call , we say that this value is dynamically scoped.